Category:Twin Cities, MN Masquerade

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In the Masquerade Camarilla/Anarch/Independent venue continuity, this city is run as a GL Dark Place on the Map.

This is the venue page for Vampire: the Masquerade (C/A/I) in Twin Cities, MN (Minneapolis & St. Paul).

MinneapolisAtNight 1.jpg

This page contains information about the Twin Cities that is relevant to the MES Camarilla/Anarch/Independent continuity.

ST Contact: GL ARST Masquerade CAI

Games in the Twin Cities: MES has no OOC presence in the Twin Cities, so no LARP games are run there. Some GL IRC games may be set there.

Current Setting

Minneapolis skyline.jpg

In the course of history, the Twin Cities have competed with other cities such as of the Camarilla's Lakes-Mississippi Heartland Grand Rapids and Bloominton for the honor of being the greatest stronghold of Clan Toreador in the region. But especially since the consolidation of Minneapolis and St. Paul under a single Twin Cities praxis in 1968, Toreador power has gravitated to this bastion of the Camarilla in the Upper Midwest. The Twin Cities are now known widely as the home of an eminently civilized Kindred court with a high standard of conduct a penchant for great subtlety and innuendo that often leaves visitors from other courts confused about how even a brief visit can result in great loss of standing and public scandal. Nonetheless, as one of very few major airline hubs left in the Midwest since the loss of Detroit to the Clan Giovanni in 1967 and the fall of Chicago in the 1990s, the Twin Cities hold the key to a powerful aspect of Camarilla security in North America at this time. An additional factor that places Twin Cities on the map of Camarilla politics is that Viktor Nagy, Tremere Clanhead, currently resides here.

The Prince of Twin Cities claims the following entire counties within her domain:

  • Minnesota:
    • Anoka
    • Carver
    • Chisago
    • Dakota
    • Goodhue
    • Hennepin
    • Isanti
    • McCleod
    • Ramsey
    • Rice
    • Scott
    • Sherburne
    • Stearns
    • Washington
    • Wright
  • Wisconsin:
    • Pierce
    • St. Croix

The nearest Camarilla court is located in Milwaukee, WI.

Twin Cities has numerous small Elysia managed by the Keeper of Elysium:


Pp camarilla.jpg

Prince: Monique Preusen (Toreador)
Seneschal: Walter Lorente (Toreador)
Sheriff: Alec Vale (Brujah)
Keeper of Elysium: Jason Stark (Ventrue)

Primogen Council

Brujah - n/a
Gangrel - Edward Grey
Malkavian - n/a
Nosferatu - Andrew Marx
Toreador - Ole Engebretsen
Tremere - Albert MacGuire
Ventrue - Joseph Peterson

Harpy: Adrianna Tiernay (Toreador)
Twin Cities Masquerade Harpy Reports

Others of the Court

Brujah: n/a
Gangrel: Thomas Avery, Rosa "Rose" Hernandez
Malkavian: Martin Poplar
Nosferatu: Allison Greene, John Astrid
Toreador: Paul Leser, Kathy Glens
Tremere: n/a
Ventrue: n/a

Former Residents and Visitors

This section is for listing PCs and NPCs who were former residents of this city or whose activities in the city's history might be known to others. Completely clandestine interactions may be listed, but should be listed with a disclaimer making that clear.

Please provide the character's name with a wiki link, a date or date range, and brief information about the character's role in the city.

Former Residents

  • Viktor Nagy (former Tremere Clanhead: ANST NPC): The late clanhead Nagy was abducted by the Sabbat while traveling in 2013. Efforts to recover him did not succeed, and he was destroyed by the Sabbat.

Historical Visitors

History of the Twin Cities and the Surrounding Area

Mississippi riverfront and Saint Anthony Falls in 1915.

For over sixty years, the areas that would eventually become the Twin Cities grew steadily without Kindred activity. It wasn't until 1869 that Albertina Schuster (Ventrue Elder) arrived to take control of St. Paul, followed soon after by Monique Preusen (Toreador Elder) and her brood, who claimed Minneapolis as their personal domain. As the cities grew, so did the Kindred population, along with the importance of the city. In 1873, by peaceful arrangement, Albertina Schuster claimed praxis of St. Paul and Monique Preusen claimed praxis of Minneapolis. Both Camarilla courts were run independently for most of the next 100 years.

Throughout the latter decades of the 1800s, Minneapolis became a powerful lumber and flour-milling powerhouse. Meanwhile, St. Paul lay just across the river, already cementing its presence in history with its beautiful Victorian architecture. The two cities competed, violently at times, with one another in a bitter rivalry. In the 1960s, the rivalry between the two mortal cities began to calm. This was in large part due to Prince Schuster's idea to bring two new professional sports teams into the cities, the Minnesota Twins and the Minnesota Vikings. Both teams took the moniker of the state as a whole, rather than identifying themselves with a side of the river. At the time, Preusen was noted as having laughed at the idea, claiming, "The people are tied to the land, not to a name. Their patriotism will not be so easily deceived by fools in tight pants cajoling around in spectacles of athletic ability." While the mortals eventually let the rivalry fade, the Kindred courts' rivalry was resolved much more directly.

During the 1968 race riots in St. Paul, Prince Albertina Schuster (Ventrue Elder) went missing. Investigation by Camarilla court members revealed that she had met Final Death. In the successive weeks, a flurry of prestations and boons are exchanged in Minneapolis and St. Paul. The result was that at a combined Yuletide celebration hosted by the court of Minneapolis for the court of St. Paul, Monique Preusen proclaimed herself “Prince of the Twin Cities”, unifying the courts from that night onward. Cynics and conspiracy theorists have asserted privately since then that the death of Schuster was a revenge assassination orchestrated by Preusen in order to gain control of both cities in the wake of several transportation infrastructure projects starting in the 1950s set in motion by Schuster through the state capitol that had destroyed numerous cultural landmarks and neighborhoods prized by the Toreador prince. The Toreadors of the Twin Cities claimed that Schuster’s death was likely accomplished by Lupines trying to strike back for prolonged wolf bounty legislation in Minnesota, perhaps managed under the cover of the new American Indian Movement. Others argued that it was a plot by the Detroit Giovanni to use St. Paul’s black population to destabilize the Camarilla in the region. Numerous Camarilla members in the Lakes-Mississippi Heartland consider this matter far from resolved even still.

In modern nights, the cities have outgrown their usefulness as a massive grain center, but they have earned a place of greater importance by becoming a strong metropolitan art haven in the Midwest. Members of Clan Toreador have claimed that the divisiveness between the Twin Cities, now a matter of history, was the greatest achievement of Schuster's rule. On one side of the river, Minneapolis now sports a powerful image of modern art and architecture, and serves as a home for anyone of a liberal mindset. Across the way, the more conservative St. Paul hosts a number of old Victorian-style homes. Among Clan Toreador, the artistic dynamism and cultural success of the Twin Cities is a natural and vital outgrowth of the duality and conflict of the local society. Art comes from confrontation, emotion, tension, and experience. Such is the secret to the beauty of the Twin Cities.

The greatest achievement of the Twin Cities, however, are the industrial and economic powers that have been present throughout the cities' mutual evolutions. As the times have changed, the princes (and now the prince) always managed to adapt and keep up. In the regional sphere, few if any cities can challenge the political and economic strength and stability that Albertina Schuster cultivated in her time as Prince. Now the Toreadors of the Twin Cities lead the entire metro area into an even grander future.

Timeline of the Twin Cities and the Surrounding Area

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  • Please note that this information is still in the works and, finalized or not, is only available ICly to those with Kindred Lore 1+

Masquerade specific (read: made up for game) history is noted by brackets []; everything else is RL but still used for historical purposes and should be considered IC, as well. An asterisk denotes a national architectural landmark.

Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN History:

  • Prehistory: Burial mounds in present-day Indian Mounds Park suggest that the area was originally inhabited by the Hopewell Native Americans about two thousand years ago.
  • Late 1600s: From the early 17th century until 1837, the Mdewakanton Dakota, a tribe of the Sioux, lived near the mounds after fleeing their ancestral home of Mille Lacs Lake from advancing Ojibway. They called the area I-mni-za ska dan ("little white rock") for its exposed white sandstone cliffs.
  • 1680 (approx.): Dakota Sioux were the region's sole residents until French explorers with Daniel Greysolon, Sieur du Lhut arrived on a mission to extend French dominance over the area. While exploring the St. Croix River area, he got word that some other explorers had been held captive. He arranged for their release. The prisoners included Michel Aco, Antoine Auguelle, and Father Louis Hennepin, a Catholic priest and missionary. On that expedition, Father Hennepin discovered the St. Anthony Falls and named them after his patron saint, Anthony of Padua.
  • 1787: The land on the east side of the river became part of the Northwest Territory.

19th Century

  • 1803: The Louisiana Purchase turns over much of New France to the United States, including present-day Minnesota.
  • 1805: Following the Louisiana Purchase, a U.S. Army officer named Zebulon Pike negotiated approximately 100,000 acres (400 km2; 160 sq mi) of land from the local Dakota tribes in order to establish a fort. The negotiated territory was located on both banks of the Mississippi River, starting from Saint Anthony Falls in present-day Minneapolis, to its confluence with the Saint Croix River. In return, Pike distributed about $200 in trading goods and sixty gallons of liquor, and promised a further payment from the United States government. The United States Senate eventually approved a payment of $2,000.
  • 1819: Fort Snelling was built on the territory at the confluence of the Mississippi and Minnesota Rivers, which formed a natural barrier to both Native American nations, to extend United States jurisdiction over the area and in order to allay concerns about British fur traders in the area. Fur traders, explorers, and missionaries came to the area for the fort's protection. Many of the settlers were French-Canadians who lived nearby. However, as a whiskey trade flourished, military officers banned settlers from the fort-controlled lands. Pierre "Pig's Eye" Parrant, a retired fur trader-turned-bootlegger who particularly irritated officials, set up his tavern, the Pig's Eye, near present-day Lambert's Landing. The soldiers initially camped at a site on the south side of the Minnesota River, but conditions were hard there and nearly a fifth of the soldiers died of scurvy in the winter of 1819–1820.
  • 1822: A lumber mill and a grist mill were built on the falls in 1822 to supply Fort Snelling.
  • 1837: A treaty with the Sioux ceded all local tribal land east of the Mississippi to the U.S. Government. Taoyateduta (Chief Little Crow V) moved his band at Kaposia across the river to the south. Until 1848, St. Paul grew from a few traders with tents and shacks on the riverside to a small town with settlers starting to put down roots. Joseph Plympton became commander of Fort Snelling.
  • 1838 (July 15-16): On July 15, word reached Fort Snelling that a treaty between the United States and the Dakota Sioux and Ojibway had been ratified, ceding land between the Saint Croix River and the Mississippi River. Franklin Steele rushed off to the falls, built a shanty, and marked off boundary lines. Plympton's party arrived the next morning, but they were too late to claim the most desirable land. Plympton claimed some less desirable land near Steele's claim, as did other settlers such as Pierre Bottineau, Joseph Rondo, Samuel Findley, and Baptiste Turpin. Steele went on to build a dam at the falls and built a sawmill that cut logs from the Rum River area.
  • 1840: The town of St. Paul had only nine cabins scattered between the Upper and Lower Landings. Some were members of the failed Red River Colony in Manitoba, but they were soon joined by first-generation American pioneers. No structures in St. Paul have survived from this period.
  • 1840s: By this time, the community had become important as a trading center and a destination for settlers heading west. Locals called the area Pig's Eye (French: L'Oeil du Cochon) or Pig's Eye Landing after Parrant's popular tavern.
  • 1841: Father Lucien Galtier was sent to minister to the Catholic French-Canadians and established a chapel, named for his favorite saint, Paul the Apostle, on the bluffs above Lambert's Landing. Galtier intended for the settlement to adopt the name Saint Paul in honor of the new chapel.
  • 1847: A New York Baptist educator named Harriet Bishop (originally from Vermont) moved to the area and opened the city's first school in a cabin at St. Peter Street and Kellogg Boulevard. There she taught children of diverse ethnic, racial, and religious backgrounds and supported the temperance movement. Harriet Island was named for her.
  • 1849: The Minnesota Territory was formalized in 1849 and Saint Paul named as its capital. In the decade following its designation as the territorial capital, St. Paul grew exponentially from 900 in 1849 to 10,000 in 1860.
  • 1849-1850 (winter): Franklin Steele suggested to his associated Colonel John H. Stevens that he should bargain with the War Department to obtain some land. Stevens agreed to operate a ferry service across the Mississippi in exchange for a claim of 160 acres (0.6 km2) just above the government mills. The government approved this bargain, and Stevens built his house in the winter of 1849–1850. The house was the first permanent dwelling on the west bank in the area that became Minneapolis.
  • 1850: St. Paul census population is 1,112. Minnesota's first newspaper, the Minnesota Pioneer, the forerunner of today's Pioneer Press, was established by James M. Goodhue.
  • mid-1850s: By this time, a primitive capitol, a courthouse (a Greek Revival building designed by David Day), and a small prison had been built in St. Paul.
  • 1851: The University of Minnesota was founded as a preparatory school.
  • 1851-1852: The Dakota Sioux were hunters and gatherers and soon found themselves in debt to fur traders. Pressed by a whooping cough outbreak, loss of buffalo, deer, and bear, and loss of forests to logging, in 1851 in the Treaty of Traverse des Sioux, the Mdewakanton Dakota sold the remaining land west of the river, allowing settlement in 1852.
  • 1853: The Baldwin School was founded in St. Paul by a Presbyterian minister.
  • 1854: The College of Saint Paul was founded by the same Presbyterian minister; it was later combined with the Baldwin School to become Macalester College. Also, Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church was founded this year. It is the oldest church in Minneapolis in continuous use. The church was originally built by the First Universalist Society.
  • early 1850s: St. Paul's one Catholic parish was divided into three factions; the French, German, and Irish groups each held service in their native tongues in one building.
  • 1855 (January 23): The Hennepin Avenue Bridge, a suspension bridge that was the first bridge built over the full width of the Mississippi River, was built in 1854 and dedicated on January 23, 1855. The bridge had a span of 620 feet (189 m), a roadway of 17 feet (5 m), and was built at a cost of $36,000. The toll was five cents for pedestrians and twenty-five cents for horse-drawn wagons. The Minnesota Territorial Legislature recognized St. Anthony as a town.
  • 1856: The Minnesota Territorial Legislature recognized Minneapolis as a town. Minneapolis sawmills led the nation. This year, they produced 12 million board feet (28,000 m³) of lumber. At peak production periods between then and 1899, at least 13 sawmills were operating at the St. Anthony Falls.
  • 1856 (autumn): Construction began on the Minnesota & Pacific Railroad. Also, German-Jewish pioneers formed St. Paul's first synagogue and the German cultural society, Leseverein built Athenaeum, a Deutsches Haus for theatrical productions. The Catholic diocese in St. Paul allowed the German Catholics to have their own parish, and the first Assumption Church was built.
  • 1857: The territorial legislature voted to move the capital to Saint Peter. However, Joe Rolette, a territorial legislator, stole the physical text of the approved bill and went into hiding, thus preventing the move. Also in this year, the Minnesota & Pacific Railroad was opened in St. Paul. Later, after becoming the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad, this would become part of the Great Northern Railway from St. Paul to Seattle. The Panic of 1857 delays the onset of rail development to Minnesota.
  • 1858 (May 11): Minnesota was admitted to the union as the thirty-second state, with Saint Paul as the capital. That year, more than 1,000 steamboats were in service at Saint Paul, making the city a gateway for settlers to the Minnesota frontier or Dakota Territory. Natural geography was a primary reason that the city became a landing. The area was the last accessible point to unload boats coming upriver due to the Mississippi River Valley's stone bluffs. During this period, Saint Paul was called "The Last City of the East."
  • 1859: The Wabasha Street Bridge, a wooden Howe Truss bridge and the first bridge to cross the Mississippi River in St. Paul, was completed.
  • 1860: St. Paul census population is 10,401. St. Paul was still much larger than Minneapolis across the river.
  • 1860: Minneapolis census population is 5,809.
  • 1860: The Minnesota & Pacific Railroad went bankrupt. The new state legislature purchased all of its assets for a mere $1,000. The first telegraph line reached St. Paul.
  • 1861 (September 9): A barge arrived at Lower Landing carrying a steam engine, rail cars, and iron tracks, the first pieces of the coming railroad growth in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area.
  • 1861-1865: The University of Minnesota was forced to close during the American Civil War because of financial difficulties.
  • 1862: The Minnesota state legislature reorganized the bankrupt Minnesota & Pacific Railroad as the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad. That same year, 10 miles (16 km) of track between St. Paul and St. Anthony finally opened. Egbert E. Litchfield bought most of the road's stock, and while the branch line reached Sauk Rapids by 1867 (financed mostly by bonds sold in The Netherlands) little was accomplished on the main line.
  • 1864: The railroad continued building track from Minneapolis to Elk River.
  • 1865: The Minnesota Central, an early predecessor of the Milwaukee Road, built a line from Minneapolis to Fort Snelling. Only 210 miles (340 km) of track had been laid for the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad by this time.
  • 1866: The railroad continued building track from Minneapolis to St. Cloud. Cadwallader C. Washburn's imposing flour mill, built that year, was six stories high and promoted as the largest mill west of Buffalo, New York. Other prominent industries at the St. Anthony Falls included foundries, machine shops, and textile mills.
  • 1867: The St. Paul & Pacific Railroad built almost no more track between 1867 and 1871. Nonetheless, it heavily promoted the construction of towns every eight miles along its length, and was the leading railroad helping to "colonize" Minnesota. Boundaries were changed and Minneapolis was incorporated as a city. The railroad continued building track from Minneapolis to Howard Lake. With support from John S. Pillsbury, the University of Minnesota reopened in 1867
  • 1867 (October 14): The railroad, via the McGregor & Western line through Prairie du Chien, Wisconsin gave Minneapolis rail service to Milwaukee.
  • 1868: The first brothel in St. Paul opened, providing employment for some women in the untamed frontier town. Minneapolis was only served by a railroad spur from St. Paul, from the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad, and by the fledgling St. Paul and Pacific Railroad
  • 1869: [ Albertina Schuster arrives in St. Paul and claims it as her personal domain. Monique Preusen does likewise in Minneapolis.]
  • 1869: The railroad continued building track from Minneapolis to Willmar.
  • 1869 (October 4): Due to erosion of the sandstone under the limestone platform of the St. Anthony Falls, a tunnel under Hennepin Island and Nicollet Island collapsed and filled with water. With the limestone cap breached, the tunnel quickly created a torrent of water that blasted Hennepin Island and threatened to destroy the falls. The falls were shored up quickly, and over the next several years, the falls were repaired by building a wooden apron, sealing the tunnel, and building low dams above the falls to avoid exposing the limestone to the weather. This work was assisted by the federal government, and was eventually completed in 1884. The federal government spent $615,000 on this effort, while the two cities spent $334,500. [It was at this time that Lieber Zimmerman, a Nosferatu of unknown origin was discovered. He had apparently caused the collapse. He was sentenced to death, but escaped before the sentence could be carried out.]
  • 1870: St. Paul census population is 20,030. St. Paul was still much larger than Minneapolis across the river.
  • 1870: Minneapolis census population is 13,066.
  • 1870 (December): The Northern Pacific Railway purchased the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad. One stylish St. Paul brothel madam named Mary Robinson reported property worth $77,000 that year. Others were not so fortunate. Prostitute Kate Hutton was shot and killed by a lover, and presumably other ladies of the night were victims of violence.
  • 1871: By this time, the west river bank (Minneapolis side) had twenty-three businesses including flour mills, woolen mills, iron works, a railroad machine shop, and mills for cotton, paper, sashes, and planing wood. [Nearly all of these mills can be attributed to Monique Preusen and her brood, although they would not have been possible without Prince Albertina Schuster's support and financial capabilities.
  • 1872: Horace Cleveland visited St. Paul and proposed a city-wide park system; shortly thereafter Lake Como was purchased, eventually to be the anchor of Como Park, Zoo, and Conservatory. Possibly as a result of the bonding needed to rehabilitate the falls, the cities of Minneapolis and St. Anthony were joined into one city on April 9.
  • 1873: The Northern Pacific Railway went bankrupt in the Panic of 1873. E. Darwin Litchfield (Egbert's brother) bought the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad back from the bigger road. But Dutch investors held most of the road's stock, and forced Litchfield to allow a receiver to manage the system. For three more years, little was done by the receiver.
  • 1873: [By peaceful arrangement, Albertina Schuster claims praxis of St. Paul and Monique Preusen claims praxis of Minneapolis. Both Camarilla courts are run independently for most of the next 100 years.]
  • 1875: Horse-drawn street car service managed by the Minneapolis Street Railway company begins in Minneapolis & St. Paul.
  • 1877: [St. Paul's volunteer fire department was disbanded in favor of a paid department. The volunteers had served the city since 1854, but the building boom necessitated moving to a full-time department. This was orchestrated by Prince Albertina Schuster, who realized ahead of time that volunteers would prove too difficult to control in times of need, whereas a city-run company could be more easily manipulated.] Our Lady of Lourdes Catholic Church became a Catholic church when a Catholic French Canadian congregation acquired it.
  • 1878: James J. Hill, who ran steamboats on the Red River, knew that the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad owned very valuable land grants and saw the potential of the railroad. Hill convinced John S. Kennedy (a New York City banker who had represented the Dutch bondholders), Norman Kittson (Hill's friend and a wealthy fur trader), Donald Smith (a Montreal banker and executive with the Hudson's Bay Company), and George Stephen (Smith's cousin and a wealthy railroad executive) to invest $5.5 million in purchasing the railroad. On March 13, 1878, the Dutch formally signed an agreement transferring their bonds to the investors group and giving them control of the railroad.
  • 1878 (May 2): The Washburn "A" Mill exploded when grain dust ignited. The explosion killed 18 workers and destroyed 1/3 of the capacity of the milling district, as well as other nearby businesses and residences. By the end of the year, though, 17 mills were back in operation, including the rebuilt Washburn "A" Mill and others that had been completely rebuilt. The millers also took the opportunity to rebuild with new technology such as dust collection systems. [Liber Zimmerman is suspected of causing the explosion, as there is evidence of Nosferatu tunneling beneath this portion of the city. A pile of charred bones are also found in the wreckage, which were uncharacteristic of the other bodies found there.]
  • 1879: [ Andrew Marx arrived, claiming to have been sent from Milwaukee, to "reaffirm the Prince's trust that the courts of Minneapolis and St. Paul can certainly recover from such an incident, and also to apologize for the behavior of my Clanmate, Zimmerman." Some suspect, though, that the Prince of Milwaukee sent Marx there to work as a spy, possibly to replace Zimmerman.]
  • 1879 (February-March): In order to finance construction of the St. Paul & Pacific Railroad, the road had issued bonds that allowed the bearer to receive up to $10,000 per mile of track completed, but only if the line was finished. The group bought out the Litchfields in exchange for cash and bonds in the new company. The St. Paul & Pacific Railroad had showed a $500,000 profit for 1878, and in March 1879 two different courts finally approved the company's emergence from bankruptcy.
  • 1879 (May-June): On May 23, the key investors in the railroad formed a new company, the Saint Paul, Minneapolis, and Manitoba Railway (StPM&M), to take over the assets of the SP&P. It did so in June 1879, bringing an end to the existence of the St. Paul and Pacific.
  • 1879 (September 18): Hill changed the name of the Minneapolis and St. Cloud Railway (a railroad which existed primarily on paper, but which held very extensive land grants throughout the Midwest and Pacific Northwest) to the Great Northern Railway.
  • 1880: St. Paul census population is 41,473. St. Paul's population was surpassed by Minneapolis. Though St. Paul's population would continue to increase until its first decrease in the 1970s, the older city's population would never again equal that of Minneapolis, despite Minneapolis experiencing negative growth sooner, in the 1950s. By this time, horse-drawn street cars and even a few cable cars covered 20 miles (32 km) of city streets, managed by the Minneapolis Street Railway, which later merged with St. Paul Railway Company and became the Twin City Rapid Transit Company. Meanwhile, the Milwaukee Road expanded their presence in Minneapolis with a "Short Line" connection from St. Paul to Minneapolis.
  • 1880: Minneapolis census population is 46,887.
  • 1880-1881: The largest mill on the east side of the river was the Pillsbury "A" Mill, was built. It was designed by local architect LeRoy S. Buffington. The Pillsbury Company wanted a building that was beautiful as well as functional. The seven-story building had stone walls six feet thick at the base tapering to eighteen inches at the top. With improvements and additions over the years, it became the world's largest flour mill. The Pillsbury "A" Mill is now a National Historic Landmark, along with the Washburn "A" Mill.
  • 1881: The Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce was founded as a market to trade grain. It helped farmers by ensuring that they got the best prices possible for their wheat, oats, and corn, since the usual supply and demand curves were skewed by similar harvest times across the region.
  • 1880s: Foreign-language newspapers flourished in St. Paul, with local publications in German, French, Norwegian, Swedish, Danish, Polish, and Czech. African-Americans read The Appeal and Jewish immigrants read the Jewish Weekly. By the turn of the century, resentment of the newest immigrants began to take hold. Henry A. Castle wrote that the earliest immigrants, primarily from the British Isles, Germany, Scandinavia, Switzerland, Holland, Belgium, and France easily reached the standards expected of them. In contrast, by the 1880s, most new immigrants were unskilled workers from southern Europe, eastern Europe, and Russia. He described them as illiterate, unable to be assimilated into the city's culture, and often without families. He said they drained the economy by working here and sending money back to their homelands. From the 1880s through the 1950s, Minneapolis comes to be known for anti-Semitism.
  • 1882: The first hydroelectric power plant in the United States was built at the falls on Upton Island. The Brush Electric Company, headed by Charles F. Brush, supplied the equipment, which included five generators. The electricity was transmitted via four circuits to shops on Washington Avenue. The company competed with the Minneapolis Gas Light Company, which later became Minnegasco and is now part of CenterPoint Energy. Other hydroelectric dam operations follow in the next decades.
  • 1882 (September 5): The power plant turned on the lights on September 5, 1882, just ahead of the Vulcan Street Plant in Appleton, Wisconsin.
  • 1883: The Stone Arch Bridge across the river was completed in order to get better access to the east-bank Manitoba rail line for flour millers and set up the new Minneapolis Union Depot. The Minneapolis, Sault Ste. Marie & Atlantic Railway got its start, with the goal of serving Atlantic ports via Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and bypassing Chicago altogether. The Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce introduced its first futures contract for hard red spring wheat. The Minneapolis Institute of Arts was established in 1883 by twenty-five citizens who were committed to bringing the fine arts into the Minneapolis community. [Nearly all of these citizens were under the guidance or employ of the local Toreador Monique Preusen and her two childer Ole Engebretsen and Walter Lorente. Prince Schuster supported the idea, but chose not to get involved in what seemed to clearly be Toreador affairs.]
  • 1884: Minneapolis surpassed Budapest as the world's leading flour miller. (Between 1880 and 1930, Minneapolis led the nation in flour production, earning it the nickname "Mill City".)
  • 1885 (April 25): The Minneapolis Union Depot was opened for passenger service.
  • 1886: In 1885, a New York reporter had written that St. Paul was "another Siberia, unfit for human habitation" in winter. Offended by this attack on their Capital City, the St. Paul Chamber of Commerce decided to not only prove that St. Paul was habitable, but that its citizens were very much alive during winter, the most dominant season. Thus was born the Saint Paul Winter Carnival in 1886, when King Boreas the First was crowned and the first Winter Carnival commenced. This festival also featured an ice castle, an elaborate creation made from the ice of Minnesota lakes, which has since evolved into an internationally recognized icon for Saint Paul's festival. [This was actually organized by Monique Preusen and her brood, to strengthen the area's reputation among Kindred and Kine alike.She also used this as an opportunity to host her first Toreador Salon, which took place at the same time, in the hours after the mortals had gone to bed, but before dawn.] Also this year, when Martha Ripley founded Maternity Hospital for both married and unmarried mothers, which counted as a major local move against discrimination in Minneapolis at the time.
  • 1889: By this time when electrification of street rail began, the Twin Cities system had grown to 115 miles (185 km).
  • 1890: St. Paul census population is 133,156.
  • 1890: Minneapolis census population is 164,738.
  • 1890 (February 1): Hill transferred ownership of the StPM&M, Montana Central Railway, and other rail systems he owned to the Great Northern Railway. Minneapolis flour production stood at about 7,000,000 US dry barrels (810,000 m3) annually.
  • 1891: By this time, all St. Paul horse-drawn street cars and cable cars had been replaced by electric streetcar lines. The Northwestern Consolidated Milling Company was formed, consolidating many of the smaller mills into one corporate entity.
  • 1898: Convenient transportation and an increasingly dense population in St. Paul contributed to an outbreak of typhoid fever. Soldiers mustering for the Spanish-American War were encouraged by 40,000 visitors, and 500 soldiers took ill from the exposure.
  • 1899: Lake Phalen was purchased by the city of St. Paul. Meanwhile, over decades of operation, Minneapolis sawmill production total had risen to about 91,000,000 board feet (215,000 m³) in 1869, and 960,000,000 board feet (2,270,000 m³) that year.

20th Century

  • 1900: St. Paul census population is 163,065.
  • 1900: Minneapolis census population is 202,718. Minneapolis mills were grinding 14.1 percent of the nation's grain. DeLaSalle High School was founded by Archbishop John Ireland as a Catholic secondary school. Its early mission was as a commercial school.
  • 1901: [ Edward Grey arrives on foot in Minneapolis. He doesn't introduce himself to the Prince, but he also stays outside the city proper, so she ignores him even after learning about his presence.]
  • 1902: St. Paul’s historic Landmark Center, was built. It originally served as the Federal Court House and Post Office for the Upper Midwest. As a courthouse, John Dillinger, Machine Gun Kelly, and Baby Face Nelson were later tried in the building. [Rumor has it that Walter Lorente was working with Andrew Marx to ensure that these trials took place in the Minneapolis/St. Paul area, as they knew that the draws would bring a good deal of positive attention to the cities.]
  • 1904 (August 20): Severe thunderstorms and tornadoes damaged hundreds of downtown buildings, causing $1.78 million ($46.04 million present-day) in damages to the city and ripping spans from the High Bridge.
  • 1905: The third state capitol building opened in St. Paul. The building was designed by Cass Gilbert and modeled after Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome — the unsupported marble dome is the second largest in the world, after Saint Peter's. At a cost of USD $4.5 million, it opened in 1905, with finishing art installations in 1906. The exterior is made of Georgian marble and Saint Cloud granite. The interior walls are constructed of 20 different types of stone, including Mankato limestone. The building's opulence is testimony to the great wealth the state generated at that time. By this time, Minneapolis delivered almost 10% of the country's flour and grist. At peak production, a single mill at Washburn-Crosby made enough flour for twelve million loaves of bread each day.
  • 1910: St. Paul census population is 214,744.
  • 1910: Minneapolis census population is 301,408.
  • 1914: World War I brought a violent wave of anti-German sentiment to the city of St. Paul. The Saint Paul Public Schools stopped teaching the German language (which had been standard fare), German Christian congregations experienced harassment from the Minnesota National Guard, the 18-foot (5 m) statue of "Germania" was removed from the Germania Life Insurance Company building, sauerkraut was temporarily renamed "Liberty Cabbage," and hamburgers were dubbed Salisbury Steak. [In response to this, Albertina Schuster acquired a private residence across the river in Minneapolis by Preusen's leave, where the culture was still very anti-Semitic, and her German background was in less danger.]
  • 1915: The present building of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts, a neoclassical structure, was designed by the firm of McKim, Mead and White opened this year.
  • 1914 (May 31): The first Mass was held in the Basilica of Saint Mary, which constructed between 1907 and 1915 on land that was formerly a farm, then a zoological garden. Archbishop John Ireland supervised the planning of the church, originally named the Pro-Cathedral of Minneapolis, along with the Cathedral of St. Paul in St. Paul. He chose architect Emmanuel Masqueray, who was trained at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris. Church leaders desired to build the finest altar in America, handcrafted of the finest marble they could afford. The building is listed on the National Register of Historic Places as one of the area's finest examples of Beaux-Arts architecture.
  • 1915-1916: Minneapolis flour production hit its peak at 20,443,000 US dry barrels (2,363,800 m3) annually.
  • 1920: St. Paul census population is 234,698.
  • 1920: Minneapolis census population is 380,582. Parents asked DeLaSalle High School to offer a college preparatory education rather than its earlier commercial focus. The school has been in operation for over 100 years in several buildings on Nicollet Island.
  • 1920s & 1930s: During Prohibition, gangsters and mobs ruled the underworld of the city. North Minneapolis was ruled by Jewish gangsters led by Isadore Blumenfield, also known as Kid Cann, who was also linked to murders, prostitution, money laundering, the destruction of the Minneapolis streetcar system and political bribery. Chief O'Connor of the St. Paul Police established the O'Connor System which provided a haven for crooks in the capital city and a headache for Minneapolis Police. Corruption spread to the MPD as an Irishman named Edward G. "Big Ed" Morgan operated gambling dens with bootleggers under police protection. Danny Hogan, the underworld "Godfather" of St. Paul allied with Morgan and the two competed with the Jewish gangsters until the wane of Prohibition and Hogan's death.
  • 1924: Washburn-Crosby Company, producers of "Gold Medal" flour and inventors of the Betty Crocker character, purchased a radio station in 1924 and renamed it WCCO, standing for "Washburn Crosby Company".
  • 1926: The Basilica of Saint Mary was elevated to the rank of basilica and became the first basilica in the United States.
  • 1927: The Walker Art Center was established as the first public art gallery in the Upper Midwest.
  • 1928: Washburn-Crosby Company merged with several other regional milling companies in 1928 and renamed themselves General Mills.
  • 1930: St. Paul census population is 271,606.
  • 1930: Minneapolis census population is 464,356. From this point forward, the flour mills gradually began to shut down. The buildings were either vacated or demolished, the railroad trestle that served the mills was demolished, and the former mill canal and mill ruins were filled in with gravel. The last two mills left at the falls were the Washburn "A" Mill and the Pillsbury "A" Mill.
  • 1937: Congressional approval for the Upper Minneapolis Harbor Development Project (i.e., the locks and dam project) came, but construction did not start until 1950.
  • 1940: St. Paul census population is 287,736.
  • 1940: Minneapolis census population is 492,370.
  • 1940s: The Walker Art Center shifted its focus toward modern art, after a gift from Mrs. Gilbert Walker made it possible to acquire works by Pablo Picasso, Henry Moore, Alberto Giacometti, and others. [Gilbert Walker never existed. The gift was given by Monique Preusen, because she had heard of these modern artists and wanted to see their work first-hand, to see if it was actually what other critics had claimed.] Politically, a lack of anti-Semitism was noted in the Midwest with the exception of Minneapolis.
  • 1941: World War II brought labor shortages and new opportunities for African Americans in the Twin Cities. The Twin City Ordnance Plant in nearby New Brighton employed as many as 20% of the black adults in the area. After the war the G.I. Bill provided unprecedented education and professional training to blacks in the city.
  • 1946: Carey McWilliams described Minneapolis as "the capital of anti-Semitism in the United States". McWilliams also noted the lack of anti-Semitism in neighboring St. Paul.
  • 1947: Andrew Chandler arrives in Minneapolis and requests citizenship. He is granted such, and speaks for Clan Malkavian.
  • 1947: The Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce was renamed the Minneapolis Grain Exchange, since the term "chamber of commerce" had become synonymous with organizations that lobbied for business and social issues.
  • 1949: New York investor Charles Green gained control of Twin City Rapid Transit, halted its rebuilding program, and announced a goal of completely converting the system to buses by 1958.
  • 1950: St. Paul census population is 311,349. The The Army Corps of Engineers began construction on the Upper Minneapolis Harbor Development Project (i.e., the locks and dam project), which had been approved in 1937. Construction was not completed until 1963.
  • 1950: Minneapolis census population is 521,718.
  • 1951: Charles Green's transit policies alienated the public and he was ousted.
  • 1950s: Minneapolis began a trend of negative growth that continued through the 1980s. The lock and dam system on the Upper Mississippi River was completed, making flooding on the West Side flats of St. Paul a rarity, leading to quality housing for low- and middle-income families being built there. About 1.6% of the population of Minneapolis at the time was non-white.
  • 1953: Ole Engebretsen relinquished the position of Keeper of Elysium to Jason Stark. He was compensated a major boon for his previous service.
  • 1954 (June 19): Charles Green's successor, Fred Ossanna, had continued to cut service and replace the streetcar system with buses. On June 19, 1954, the last streetcar took its run. A photo taken in 1954 shows James Towley handing Fred Ossanna a check while one of the streetcars burned in the background. Later on, it was discovered that Ossanna and associates had plundered the streetcar system for personal gain.
  • 1955: General Mills announced that they were moving their corporate headquarters to Golden Valley. Minneapolis city planners decided to implement a large-scale Gateway District plan that included demolishing a large number of buildings.
  • 1950s & 1960s: During the 1950s and 1960s, as part of urban renewal, the city of Minneapolis razed about two hundred buildings across twenty-five city blocks — roughly 40% of downtown - destroying the Gateway District and many buildings with notable architecture including the Metropolitan Building. Efforts to save the building failed but are credited with jump-starting interest in historic preservation in the state.
  • 1959: From 1959 to 1961, the western Rondo neighborhood, a cultural and musical center of St. Paul, was demolished by the construction of Interstate 94, which brought attention to racial segregation and unequal housing in northern cities. (Today, the annual Rondo Days celebration commemorates the African American community.) Minneapolis' nation-wide anti-Semitic reputation was perpetuated that year when Gunther Plaut again described it as "the capital of anti-Semitism in the United States". At that time the city's Jews were excluded from membership in many organizations, faced employment discrimination, and were considered unwelcome residents in some neighborhoods. Jews in Minneapolis were also not allowed to buy homes in certain neighborhoods of Minneapolis.
  • 1960: St. Paul census population is 313,411.
  • 1960: Minneapolis census population is 482,872. The census reflected Minneapolis' negative growth, which continued through the 1980s.
  • 1960s: St. Paul began a trend of negative growth that continued through the 1970s, a smaller, shorter version of the same trend in Minneapolis. During urban renewal, Saint Paul razed western neighborhoods close to downtown. The city also contended with the creation of the interstate freeway system in a fully built landscape. The Walker Art Center continued its focus on modern art with traveling shows in the 1960s and is now one of the "big five" modern art museums in the U.S.
  • 1963: The The Army Corps of Engineers completed construction on the Upper Minneapolis Harbor Development Project (i.e., the locks and dam project). The project covered the St. Anthony Falls with a permanent concrete apron and disfigured the Stone Arch Bridge by replacing two of the arches with a steel truss. The rest of Spirit Island was also obliterated in the process. The completion of the project brings an end to the era in which Minneapolis was the northernmost navigable point on the Mississippi River.
  • 1965: General Mills shut down the Washburn "A" Mill, along with several other of their oldest mills.
  • 1968: Like many U.S. cities, St. Paul endured rioting after the assassination of Martin Luther King. Minneapolis became the birthplace of the American Indian Movement this year.
  • 1968: [During the riots in St. Paul, Prince Albertina Schuster goes missing. Investigation by Camarilla court members reveals that she has met Final Death. In the successive weeks, a flurry of prestations and boons are exchanged in Minneapolis and St. Paul. The result is that at a combined Yuletide celebration hosted by the court of Minneapolis for the court of St. Paul, Monique Preusen proclaims herself “Prince of the Twin Cities”, unifying the courts from that night onward. Cynics and conspiracy theorists assert privately since then that the death of Schuster was a revenge assassination orchestrated by Preusen in order to gain control of both cities in the wake of several transportation infrastructure projects starting in the 1950s set in motion by Schuster through the state capitol that had destroyed numerous cultural landmarks and neighborhoods prized by the Toreador prince. The Toreadors of the Twin Cities claim that Schuster’s death was likely accomplished by Lupines trying to strike back for prolonged wolf bounty legislation in Minnesota, perhaps managed under the cover of the new American Indian Movement. Others argue that it was a plot by the Detroit Giovanni to use St. Paul’s black population to destabilize the Camarilla in the region.]
  • 1970: St. Paul census population is 309,980. The census reflected St. Paul's negative growth, which continued through the 1970s.
  • 1970: Minneapolis census population is 434,400.
  • 1971: W. Harry Davis, who later served 20 years on the Minneapolis School Board, agreed to run for mayor in 1971, becoming the city's first black mayoral candidate supported by a major political party. White supremacists were still present in Minneapolis, and threatened his family daily during the campaign. The police department guarded their home and the FBI gave them protection dogs.
  • 1970s: Downtown had short skyscraper-building booms.
  • 1974: The Minneapolis skyline was dramatically changed by the completion of the IDS Center downtown. It dwarfed the previous highest building, the Foshay Tower.
  • 1980: St. Paul census population is 270,230.
  • 1980: Minneapolis census population is 370,951.
  • 1982: The Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome was completed. It formerly hosted the Minnesota Twins and the Minnesota Golden Gophers football team. It now hosts the Minnesota Vikings.
  • Late 1980s: The tallest buildings, such as Galtier Plaza (Jackson and Sibley Towers), the Pointe of Saint Paul condominiums, and the city's tallest building, Wells Fargo Place (formerly Minnesota World Trade Center), were constructed.
  • 1990: St. Paul census population is 272,235.
  • 1990: Minneapolis census population is 368,383.
  • 1990s: The census populations of St. Paul and Minneapolis experienced a slight surge. The trend began in the 1980s in St. Paul and after 1990 in Minneapolis. Actual population figure increases were similar, but the growth trend was proportionally smaller in Minneapolis. The last wave of downtown development filled in parcels around the skyscrapers with towers 40 stories or less from companies such as Target, Ameriprise Financial, and AT&T.
  • 1991: Minneapolis elected its first African American mayor, Sharon Sayles Belton. To date, she has been the city's only female and only non-white mayor. The Washburn "A" Mill was severely damaged in a fire.
  • 1994: The Stone Arch Bridge was opened to pedestrian traffic, creating a link in the trail system and providing spectacular views of St. Anthony Falls.

21st Century

  • 2000: St. Paul census population is 287,151.
  • 2000: Minneapolis census population is 382,618.
  • 2000s: The populations of both Minneapolis and St. Paul were relatively stable, with nearly no growth or loss. The West Side of St. Paul continues to be home to third and fourth-generation Mexican immigrants, as well as 21st-century first-generation Mexican immigrants.
  • 2003: After stabilization since the 1991 fire, the Washburn "A" Mill was converted into the Mill City Museum, opened in 2003 by the Minnesota Historical Society. The museum presents a history of flour milling and industrial development along the river, and an eight-story elevator ride shows the various steps that turned wheat into flour. [As a gift to his sire, Ole Engebretsen had this done personally, knowing that Monique Preusen has long held the belief that the greatest cities are tied to the land and the things it produces. Even though the Twin Cities are no longer massive grain-producers, the knowledge and history can be cultivated and maintained, producing a similar effect.]
  • 2004: In the 1990s and 2000s, the tradition of bringing new immigrant groups to the city continued. As of 2004, nearly 10% of St. Paul's population were recent Hmong immigrants from Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, and Myanmar. Saint Paul is the location of the Hmong Archives.
  • 2005: Martin Poplar brings information to light concerning his Sire, Andrew Chandler. While the Prince and Harpy do not reveal this information to the general public, it resulted in Chandler's exile from the city and Poplar's promotion to Primogen for the Clan of the Moon.
  • 2006: The Guthrie Theater moved to a new building along the riverfront, just southeast of the Mill City Museum.
  • 2010: St. Paul census population is 285,068.
  • 2010: Minneapolis census population is 382,578.
  • 2010: The Minneapolis-St. Paul-Bloomington Metropolitan Statistical Area, a region of 11 counties in Minnesota and two in neighboring Wisconsin defined by he U.S. Census Bureau, had a population of 3,279,833. The area is growing rapidly and its population is projected to increase to four million within 20 years.

Further details about the History of St. Paul.
Further details about the History of Minneapolis.
Further information about the Twin Cities Metro Area.

OOC Information

For information about the Twin Cities, MN domain, please contact the GL ARST Masq Camarilla/Anarch/Independent.